Water Supply & Water Reuse
Flow charts are being developed to assist the planning of water supply schemes. Two main variants of the flow charts will be available for: (i) Retrofitting of existing water supply schemes which are not performing well either due to the gap between water availability and water demand or due to the deficiencies in service delivery; (ii) Planning of a new water supply projects. The key component in both these planning flow charts is the incorporation of use of treated wastewater to partially meet the water demand. Treated wastewater can be reused in three different ways: (i) Non-potable domestic use (supplied for toilet flushing, gardening etc. through dual piping system), (ii) Industrial use (supplied through transmission mains to specific industries, (iii) maintaining urban green spaces and (iv) exporting to neighboring areas. The planning considers decentralized water supply and wastewater treatment. These flow charts also consider planning water supply schemes for future smart cities.